Joe Palca

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There's a mole stuck in the ground on Mars - not the small, furry animal but a probe on NASA's Mars InSight lander called the mole. It's a probe that was supposed to go 15 feet beneath the Martian surface, but it got stuck after only going one.

NPR's Joe Palca has more.

It's easy to take corned beef sandwiches for granted. There's no mystery about them. They simply exist.

But corned beef sandwiches, along with everything else in the universe, raise a critical question in the minds of physicists: Why do they exist?

In the earliest moments of the universe, energy turned into matter. But matter comes in two forms, matter and antimatter. And when a particle of matter encounters a particle of antimatter, they annihilate each other — and all you're left with is light.

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NASA has a frequent flyer program that's out of this world - literally. People who sign up to send their names to Mars on the next rover mission will earn 313,586,649 award miles from the space agency. NPR science correspondent Joe Palca has details.

Small drones can do big jobs: Firefighters can use them to find hot spots in blazes, environmental monitors can find the source of hazardous chemical leaks. One just delivered a human kidney for transplant surgery.

But it takes lots of power to spin four helicopter blades fast enough to keep a quadcopter-type drone in the air. Most can only stay aloft for about 30 minutes.

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A NASA probe on Mars is hearing things. And in this case, that's good news. The lander called InSight is supposed to listen for marsquakes, the Martian equivalent of earthquakes. Now it's heard one maybe. NPR's Joe Palca has more.

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People who vacation in Hawaii often go for the beautiful beaches and lush rainforests. NPR science correspondent Joe Palca recently stumbled across an unexpected attraction in the town of Princeville. It's on the north side of the island of Kauai. Joe sent us this postcard.

JOE PALCA, BYLINE: This is just hilarious. You drive past the golf course, down a subdivision to a dead end and you look in people's backyards. And you see albatross.

CATHY GRANHOLM: Yeah. I have a little melodrama going on in my yard.

A team of astronomers led by an undergraduate student in Texas has discovered two planets orbiting stars more than 1,200 light-years from Earth.

Astronomers already knew of about 4,000 exoplanets, so finding two more might not seem like huge news. But it's who found them and how that's getting attention.

Is there an efficient way to tinker with the genes of plants? Being able to do that would make breeding new varieties of crop plants faster and easier, but figuring out exactly how to do it has stumped plant scientists for decades.

Now researchers may have cracked it.

Modifying the genetics of a plant requires getting DNA into its cells. That's fairly easy to do with animal cells, but with plants it's a different matter.

Opportunity lost.

NASA has officially declared an end to the mission of the six-wheeled rover on Mars. Opportunity lost power in a dust storm last June, and all efforts to make contact have failed.

"Our beloved Opportunity remained silent," Thomas Zurbuchen, associate administrator for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, said Wednesday at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. "With a sense of deep appreciation and gratitude," he added, "I declare the Opportunity mission as complete."

Many vaccines and some medicines, such as insulin, have to be delivered by injection. That's a pain, both for patients and for health care providers. But two groups of researchers are trying to put some of these medications in pill form to avoid the needle.

Scientists have evidence that a mountain 3 miles tall, in the middle of a crater on Mars, may be made largely from dust and sand.

To get the data for that surprising conclusion, the researchers MacGyvered a navigation instrument on the NASA rover Curiosity, and turned it into a scientific instrument.

Big, important scientific breakthroughs are built of small, incremental experiments. And the partial government shutdown is already interfering with some of that research.

Scientists often depend on the government for grant funding, expertise and — in some cases — even regulatory approval. With the shutdown, some researchers are missing those key elements of scientific collaboration. Here's how some scientists say the shutdown is affecting their work.

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Astronomers have a new tool they hope will help them crack an intergalactic mystery. The mystery is what's causing occasional brief but massive bursts of energy to erupt from galaxies far beyond our Milky Way. The tool is a new radio telescope in Canada called CHIME. NPR's Joe Palca reports.

JOE PALCA, BYLINE: In 2007, scientists reported the first of these peculiar bursts of energy called Fast Radio Bursts. Physicist Victoria Kaspi of McGill University remembers exactly how she and her colleagues felt when they read that first report.

Sometime early in 2019, the Chinese civilian space program plans to land a six-wheeled rover on the moon's far side — the side we never see from Earth.

The Chinese haven't released the exact date the landing is to occur, but they have announced the location. The probe, known as Chang'e 4, is targeted for Aitkin Basin, a giant impact crater near the Moon's south pole.

In addition to a variety of cameras, the rover carries ground-penetrating radar that can peer beneath the lunar surface.

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